9-cis-β-Apo-10ʹ-carotenal is the precursor of strigolactones in planta

Guan Ting Erica Chen, Jian You Wang, Muhammad Jamil, Justine Braguy, Salim Al-Babili*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Main conclusion: 13C-isotope feeding experiments demonstrate that the apocarotenoid 9-cis-β-apo-10ʹ-carotenal is the precursor of several strigolactones in rice, providing a direct, in planta evidence for its role in strigolactone biosynthesis. Abstract: Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormone that regulates plant architecture and mediates rhizospheric communications. Previous in vitro studies using heterogously produced enzymes unraveled the conversion of all-trans-β-carotene via the intermediate 9-cis-β-apo-10ʹ-carotenal into the SL precursor carlactone. However, a direct evidence for the formation of SLs from 9-cis-β-apo-10ʹ-carotenal is still missing. To provide this evidence, we supplied rice seedlings with 13C-labeled 9-cis-β-apo-10ʹ-carotenal and analyzed their SLs by LC–MS. Our results show that 9-cis-β-apo-10ʹ-carotenal is the SL precursor in planta and reveal, for the first time, the application of labeled long-chain apocarotenoids as a promising approach to investigate apocarotenoid metabolism and the genesis of carotenoid-derived growth regulators and signaling molecules.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number88
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We sincerely thank the support from the members of KAUST Analytical Core Lab and the Bioactives lab. This work was supported by baseline funding given to S. A-B from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). We thank Dr. Abdel Gabbar Babiker for providing Striga hermonthica seeds.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


  • C-isotope
  • 9-cis-β-apo-10ʹ-carotenal
  • LC–MS
  • Rice
  • Striga
  • Strigolactones

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Plant Science


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