Abstract Background In hot deserts daily/seasonal fluctuations pose great challenges to the resident organisms. However, these extreme ecosystems host unique microenvironments, such as the rhizosheath–root system of desert speargrasses in which biological activities and interactions are facilitated by milder conditions and reduced fluctuations. Here, we examined the bacterial microbiota associated with this structure and its surrounding sand in the desert speargrass Stipagrostis pungens under the contrasting environmental conditions of summer and winter in the Sahara Desert. Results The belowground rhizosheath–root system has higher nutrient and humidity contents, and cooler temperatures than the surrounding sand. The plant responds to the harsh environmental conditions of the summer by increasing the abundance and diversity of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) compared to the winter. On the contrary, the bacterial community associated with the rhizosheath–root system and its interactome remain stable and, unlike the bulk sand, are unaffected by the seasonal environmental variations. The rhizosheath–root system bacterial communities are consistently dominated by Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria and form distinct bacteria communities from those of bulk sand in the two seasons. The microbiome-stabilization mediated by the plant host acts to consistently retain beneficial bacteria with multiple plant growth promoting functions, including those capable to produce EPS, which increase the sand water holding capacity ameliorating the rhizosheath micro-environment. Conclusions Our results reveal the capability of plants in desert ecosystems to stabilize their below ground microbial community under seasonal contrasting environmental conditions, minimizing the heterogeneity of the surrounding bulk sand and contributing to the overall holobiont resilience under poly-extreme conditions.
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