In the recent past, graphene has been discovered and studied as one of the most promising materials after silicon and carbon nanotube. Its atomically thin structure, pristine dangling bonds free surface and interface, ultra-fast charge transport capability, semi-metallic behavior, ultra-strong mechanical ruggedness, promising photonic properties and bio-compatibility makes it a material to explore from all different perspectives to identify potential application areas which can augment the quality of our life. Therefore, in this doctoral work the following critical studies have been carried out meticulously with key findings are listed below: (1) A simplistic and sustainable growth process of double or multi-layer graphene (up to 4” substrate coverage with uniformity) using low-cost atmospheric chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) technique. [presented in MRS Fall Meeting 2012 and in IEEE SIECPC 2012) (2) A buried metallic layer based contact engineering process to overcome the sustained challenge of contact engineering associated with low-dimensional atomically thin material. (presented in IEEE Nano 2013 and archieved in conference proceedings) (3) Demonstration of a fin type graphene transistor (inspired by multi-gate architecture) with a mobility of 11,000 cm2/V.s at room temperature with an applied drive-in voltage of ±1 volt to demonstrate for the first time a pragmatic approach for graphene transistor for mobile applications which can maintain its ultra-fast charge transport behavior with ultra-low power consumption. [Published in ACS Nano 2013] (4) Further a meticulous study has been done to understand the harsh environment compatibility of graphene for its potential use in underwater and space applications. [Published as Cover Article in physica solidi status – Rapid Research Letters, 2014] (5) Due to its highly conductive nature and low surface-to-volume ratio it has been used to replace conventional gold based anodic material in microbial fuel cells (used for water purification in self-sustained mode) to demonstrate its effectiveness as a sustainable low-cost mechanically robust transparent material. [Published in ACS Nano 2013, in Energy Technology 2014 as a Cover Article and in Nature Publishing Group Asia Materials 2014] (6) Extensive study to stabilize graphene surface and to use the phenomena for development of a sensor which can monitor the quality of water. [presented in MRS Fall Meeting 2013 and in MRS Fall Meeting 2014] (7) By using graphene as an expose transistor architecture with ultra-scale high-k dielectric, to develop a series of sensor for glucose monitoring. Sensitivity, selectivity, response rate and refresh time has been studied and optimized. [pending review in Nature Scientific Reports 2015] (8) From the lessons learnt during the development of glucose monitoring sensor cell, a sophisticated low-cost ultra-low power mobile graphene based non-invasive sensor has been assembled and clinically trialed in collaboration with King Faisal Hospitals in Jeddah and in Makkah. [pending review in Science 2015] As a future direction, this thesis also discusses potential of graphene growth on electrochemically deposited metallic seed layers and consequential usage in stretchable and transparent graphene antenna development for fully flexible only graphene based integrated electronic system integration.
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