CENH3 information from: Einkorn genomics sheds light on history of the oldest domesticated wheat

  • Hanin Ahmed (Creator)
  • Matthias Heuberger (Creator)
  • Adam Schoen (Creator)
  • Dal Hoe Koo (Creator)
  • Jesús Quiroz-Chávez (Creator)
  • Laxman Adhikari (Creator)
  • John Raupp (Creator)
  • Stéphane Cauet (Creator)
  • Nathalie Rodde (Creator)
  • Charlotte Cravero (Creator)
  • Caroline Callot (Creator)
  • Gerard R. Lazo (Creator)
  • Nagarajan Kathiresan (Creator)
  • Parva K. Sharma (Creator)
  • Ian Moot (Creator)
  • Inderjit Singh Yadav (Creator)
  • Lovepreet Singh (Creator)
  • Gautam Saripalli (Creator)
  • Nidhi Rawat (Creator)
  • Raju Datla (Creator)
  • Naveenkumar Athiyannan (Creator)
  • Ricardo H. Ramirez-Gonzalez (Creator)
  • Cristobal Uauy (Creator)
  • Thomas Wicker (Creator)
  • Vijay Tiwari (Creator)
  • Michael Abrouk (Creator)
  • Jesse Poland (Creator)
  • Simon Krattinger (Creator)



Einkorn (Triticum monococcum) is the first domesticated wheat species, being central to the birth of agriculture and the Neolithic Revolution in the Fertile Crescent ~10,000 years ago. Here, we generate and analyze 5.2-gigabase genome assemblies for wild and domesticated einkorn, including completely assembled centromeres. Einkorn centromeres are highly dynamic, showing evidence of ancient and recent centromere shifts caused by structural rearrangements. Whole-genome sequencing of a diversity panel uncovered the population structure and evolutionary history of einkorn, revealing complex patterns of hybridizations and introgressions following the dispersal of domesticated einkorn from the Fertile Crescent. We also discovered that around 1% of the modern bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) A subgenome originates from einkorn. These resources and findings highlight the history of einkorn evolution and provide a basis to accelerate the genomics-assisted improvement of einkorn and bread wheat.
Date made available2022

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