A chromosome-scale assembly of the quinoa genome provides insights into the structure and dynamics of its subgenomes

  • Elodie Rey (Creator)
  • David Jarvis (Creator)
  • Mark Tester (Creator)



Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an allotetraploid seed crop with the potential to help address global food security concerns. Genomes have been assembled for three accessions of quinoa; however, all assemblies are fragmented and do not reflect known chromosome biology. Here, we used in vitro and in vivo Hi-C data to produce a chromosome-scale assembly of the Chilean quinoa accession PI 614886 (QQ74). The final assembly spanned 1.326 Gb, of which 90.5% was assembled into 18 chromosome-scale scaffolds. The genome was annotated with 54,499 protein-coding genes, 97% of which were located on the 18 largest scaffolds. We also produced an updated genome assembly for the B-genome diploid C. suecicum and used it, together with the A-genome diploid C. pallidicaule, to identify genomic rearrangements within the quinoa genome, including a large pericentromeric inversion representing 71.7% of chromosome Cq3B. Repetitive sequences comprise 65.20%, 48.61%, and 57.91% of the quinoa, C. pallidicaule, and C. suecicum genomes, respectively. Evidence suggests that the B subgenome is more dynamic and has expanded more than the A subgenome. These genomic resources will enable more accurate assessments of genome evolution within the Amaranthaceae and will facilitate future efforts to identify variation in genes underlying important agronomic traits in quinoa.
Date made availableOct 31 2023

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