Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an allotetraploid seed crop with the potential to help address global food security concerns. Genomes have been assembled for three accessions of quinoa; however, all assemblies are fragmented and do not reflect known chromosome biology. Here, we used in vitro and in vivo Hi-C data to produce a chromosome-scale assembly of the Chilean quinoa accession PI 614886 (QQ74). The final assembly spanned 1.326 Gb, of which 90.5% was assembled into 18 chromosome-scale scaffolds. The genome was annotated with 54,499 protein-coding genes, 97% of which were located on the 18 largest scaffolds. We also produced an updated genome assembly for the B-genome diploid C. suecicum and used it, together with the A-genome diploid C. pallidicaule, to identify genomic rearrangements within the quinoa genome, including a large pericentromeric inversion representing 71.7% of chromosome Cq3B. Repetitive sequences comprise 65.20%, 48.61%, and 57.91% of the quinoa, C. pallidicaule, and C. suecicum genomes, respectively. Evidence suggests that the B subgenome is more dynamic and has expanded more than the A subgenome. These genomic resources will enable more accurate assessments of genome evolution within the Amaranthaceae and will facilitate future efforts to identify variation in genes underlying important agronomic traits in quinoa.
|Date made available
|Oct 31 2023